This is an excerpt from the Interaction Design Best Practices ebook, written by Jerry Cao, Kamil Zięba, Matt Ellis, and originally published on UXPin.com.
Embracing Space in Interaction Design: How to Position Common Elements for Successful IxD
Effective use of space in interaction design requires an understanding of aesthetics, functionality, and human behavior. In fact, spatial design is the link between the more stylistic dimensions of language and visuals, and the more practical ones of responsiveness, time, and user behavior. Space exists somewhere in the middle, dealing with issues on both sides of the spectrum.
We’ll start our discussion on space by talking about it in its purest form — white space — and why you shouldn’t fear it. Then we’ll get into more practical tips on how to treat space in interaction design so that your interface doesn’t feel cluttered or isolated.
Don’t Fear Blank Space
White space can be daunting. As we discussed in Web UI Best Practices, white space can feel like an empty canvas — something that you must replace with your brilliance, otherwise you’re not doing your job. But the truth is something completely different: the designer’s job is to create the best interface and experience possible, and that means using white space as just another design tool.
All good visual artists understand the importance of negative space, the empty area that draws attention to, and accents, the actual subject. Negative space (the artistic equivalent of a designer’s white space) is like the supporting cast whose duty is to make the star of the show stand out more by not standing out so much themselves. design should be intentionally blank, take a look at the World’s Worst Website Ever for an extreme example of the damage caused by too many objects competing for attention.
In interaction design, white space serves three main functions: improving comprehension, clarifying relationships, and drawing attention.
1. Improving Comprehension
If cluttering your interface overloads your user with too much information, then reducing the clutter will improve comprehension. In fact, properly using white space between paragraphs and in the left and right margins has been proven to increase comprehension up to 20%, as pointed out by Dmitry Fadeyev, Creator of Usaura. The skill of using white space lies in providing your users with a digestible amount of content, then stripping away extraneous details.
White space can be broken down into four elements :
- Visual White Space — Space surrounding graphics, icons, and images.
- Layout White Space — Margins, paddings, and gutters.
- Text White Space — Spacing between lines and spacing between letters.
- Content White Space — Space separating columns of text.
Let’s take a look at how these four elements create a sense of harmony and fluidity.
Medium is a great example of striking a nice balance with all 4 let’s think about the goal of the user from an interaction standpoint: they want to access interesting content as quickly as possible. The homepage immediately facilitates that goal by placing content front and with plenty of white space on either side to add emphasis. There is ample space around visuals and between lines of copy, although the padding the space to the left of each image is not consistent with space below).
Beyond improving comprehension, white space also helps create mental maps. Minimal white space is used between the top navigation and content stream since both serve similar functions in driving the user deeper into content (and similar functions should be grouped together). Because the right-side navigation focuses more on creating and saving content, more white space separates it from the content stream. In this case, white space helps users assign different functionalities to different parts of the interface.
Once you click through to an article, white space helps focus the user on what they care about most: the content. Notice how the extra spacing between each line of text improves readability. On a subtler note, the space around the JW Marriott logo calls attention to the brand without feeling intrusive (a perfect counter-argument against the “Make the logo bigger!” remarks).
Just like the homepage, you can see that plenty of white space once again creates distance between groups of objects that serve different functions. For example, notice the amount of space between the primary content and the commenting/favoriting/share features on the bottom right.
Ultimately, proper use of white space eliminates waste in your interface. Each interaction with the user, therefore, feels necessary in helping them accomplish their goal. To learn more about listing of 22 expert pieces and take a peek at these 21 inspiring examples.
2. Clarifying Relationships
When observing how individuals organize visual information, what they call the Law of Proximity, which states that images near to each other appear at the below picture:
Almost everyone sees 2 groups of dots, rather than simply 20 dots. The dots are all identical and the only thing differentiating them is the white space that separates them. This behavioral observation has several important applications to interaction design, especially with regards to input forms:
1. Place labels closest to the relevant fields — As you can see in the below example, information is communicated far more clearly when labels are placed closer to the fields they relate to.
As described in Web UI Best Practices, research has shown that even the slightest hesitation can hurt form completion. In this case, merely adjusting the spacing increases the user’s confidence in filling out the form, which of course improves completion rate.
2. Group related topics together — When dealing with long forms, the task of filling them out can seem so overwhelming, some users will quit before even trying. Breaking the information up into appropriate groups can help make it feel more manageable.
In the form on the right, just categorizing the 15 fields into 3 groups makes the process feel easier. The amount of content is the same, but the impression on users is much different. Form fields usually present the most friction to users, but the navigation and site content. Instead of a top navigation menu with 20 items, you can create a dropdown menu with 4–7 top-level items and the rest categorized under submenus.
3. Attracting Attention — As we’ve mentioned before, the lack existing elements stand out Let’s take a look at our redesign of Yelp below (pulled from our free ebook User Testing & Design).
In the above high-fidelity prototype, we added plenty of white from the search function. In doing so, the category icons are much more noticeable (and vertical format). Combined with an animation-like color fill that’s triggered on hover, the attention while providing better feedback to the user.
But because humans have a selective attention that leads to tunnel vision — like tuning out banner ads (known as banner blindness) — you also need to know when spacing between content should be reduced and altered.
For example, in the first image from Jakob Nielsen’s work on Westfield London, the retailer wanted to show a timeline of events via lightbox popups. But the design on the left fails because the year “2000” went unnoticed. Users are instead drawn immediately to the image and body copy. Luckily, in the new image, a quick and simple adjustment to the placement of “2000” solves the problem.
Ultimately, you need to understand that the power of white space comes from the limits of human attention and memory.
Just look at the comparison between Yahoo and Google below. Yahoo tries to get the user to consider too many actions at once. Google understands the bottom line that people just want to use search engines to find stuff. By being realistic about the user goal, Google’s design encourages more effective interaction.
Understand the Limits of Human Memory
Most designers subscribe to the “don’t make the user think” school of thought.
It’s not that users are just lazy, it’s that they already have a lot on their mind, and cramming extra information just makes it harder to complete their tasks. The amount of strain an interface design creates is called “cognitive load,” and a usable and enjoyable UI will reduce this as much as possible.
Over the years, designers have developed strategies for minimizing cognitive load without sacrificing features. We’ll explain how chunking content helps reduce cognitive strain, then look at four additional memory-saving tips.
1. Chunking Content
As complicated as the human brain is, its shortcomings are surprisingly predictable. Take the studies of George Miller, for example — in 1956, the scientist released his findings that our short-term memory can usually retain data of between 5–9 items — an average of 7 — before forgetfulness sinks in. While the exact number has been contested (3–6 is the current ideal), Miller’s findings have proven effective and led to important IxD methods, including “chunking.”
Chunking is the practice of grouping relevant information together to make it easier to process and remember. In the above image, it’s easier to remember the first group of shapes because they’re chunked out.
However, chunking has since been overanalyzed and misinterpreted, looking nowadays as something more like a superstition than a best practice. For example, some designers insist that menus, dropdowns, or bullet lists should never contain more than 6 items — but this is not recommended use of the practice.
Chunking is not a hard-and-fast rule, but one that depends upon the context. As UX architect Martin Harrod recommends, chunking is ideal for the following situations:
- When your product naturally has a great deal of information that must be memorized for later use.
- The UI must must compete against external stimuli for your user’s attention (car navigation systems, certain mobile apps).
- E-learning applications (since users must later recall the information). On the other hand, you don’t need to chunk your content if it’s meant to be searched or browsed. There are exceptions, of course, as you can see below with Etsy.
While users don’t need to memorize the categories, chunking out the content on the category-level adds visual hierarchy. Once you click into the category, the chunking disappears and the items are listed. It wouldn’t make sense to apply chunking at the item-level since you can understand the frustration from browsing only 5–6 items per page.
Etsy’s treatment allows users enjoy the best of both worlds. A large amount of products are presented, but users don’t feel overstimulated. In the example above, there are 32 different products on the screen. Using any other design, the user could feel lost or distracted. Thanks to chunking, users can process all the information while honing in on the “chunks” that most interest them.
2. Additional Memory-Saving Tips
Here are some best practices designers find helpful in easing the strain on their users’ memories:
- Change the color of links already visited — This UI pattern is so popular, it’s come to be expected. This improves orientation and navigation since users can visually reference where they have and haven’t been. No memory is required.
- Facilitate comparing product pages — If you’re an ecommerce site, make it easy for users to compare different products so that they don’t need to switch back-and-forth between pages. Highlighting the product differences in a comparison view and/or on the category page will eliminate a lot of frustration.
- Use coupon links, not codes — Encode offers in special links that automatically transfer the coupon to the user’s shopping cart. By embedding such links in promotions like email newsletters, it puts the duty of remembering an obscure code on the computer, plus circumvents having an “enter coupon code” field at checkout (which frustrates buyers who don’t have access to the code).
- Long navigation menus are okay if needed — Because they rely on recognition and not recall, lengthy menus are the lesser of two evils for organizing complex navigation systems. As we mentioned before, this is why submenus are preferred over too many top-level navigation items.
No one wants a product experience to feel like a calculus test. Reduce the cognitive load and the experience naturally improves.
Apply the Law of Context to Alterable Objects
Simply put, the Law of Context states that you must place controls next to the relevant interface object, just like a label goes next to the blank form field. This reduces cognitive load because as soon as users wants to modify something, they can already see the actions available.
To illustrate this point, Designer and Blogger Peter Vukovic shows us a real-life comparison between two popular sites on how to change a user’s profile name. On Facebook, the user must traverse several different menus and pages, going from Settings to Account Settings to Name to Edit, a process that is not readily available and must be first searched in the Help section.
On LinkedIn, however, all you do is click the pencil icon next to your profile name.
Which process is simpler? Which do users prefer?
By putting the controls next to the relevant item, the designer spares the user from the hassle of researching, memorizing, and diving into complex user paths. This also relates to the point about making clicks easy because you want to minimize the path between the user and the goal. The simplification of the system allows basic common sense to triumph over lengthy and involved explanations.
Now, let’s take this principle a step further to create a hierarchy of control. As you can see below in a mockup of an online map service, controls that affect an object should be grouped with the object (like the zoom controls). Controls that affect a whole group of objects should be associated with the whole group (like the categories).
Let’s deconstruct this image (ed. link to image broken) from UX designer Paul Trenchard-Seys’ excellent piece on the principles of interaction design:
- Broadest level of control — Because changing the categories will affect the entire map image, the category interface wraps around all lower levels of control.
- Middle level of control — In this case, typing in the zip code or address is more specific than selecting a category. Since this affects where the map zooms, it’s placed right above the map (but inside the category interface).
- Precise level of control — The map zoom represents the most specific level of control. It sits inside the map image since that’s all it controls.
Of course, the above example is just one visual treatment. Make sure that your interface has a hierarchy that makes it easy to understand how each control may affect the others.
Space can either take away or add value to your content — it all depends on how you use it.
Create too much space between related interface objects and your design becomes frustrating. Cram too many objects together, and your design becomes too cluttered. Pay attention to space when creating your layouts, particularly its relationship to user memory and how proximity can convey meaning better than a wordy explanation. Space holds a lot of weight in interaction design — which is saying a lot for something that is technically nothing.
Now, feel free to practice what you’ve learned by creating your own interfaces and interactions in UXPin. If you use Photoshop or Sketch, check out our tutorials for bringing static designs to life without losing your layers.